London is the largest city to adopt congestion pricing and its success has inspired cities around the globe. In 2007, London expanded on the success of its groundbreaking 2003 congestion pricing plan with a doubling of the congestion zone, increased fees for motor vehicles, and new city-wide emission-based tolls that are spurring more rapid adoption of cleaner, fuel efficient vehicles.
Prior to the charge, London drivers spent 50 percent of their time in traffic jams, costing the city between £2–4 million ($4–8 million) every week. As of 2007 congestion had dropped 21 percent, and approximately 70,000 fewer vehicles entered the extended congestion pricing zone daily, reducing global warming carbon dioxide emissions by 16 percent. Each year more than £123 million ($243 million) are raised for public transport improvements. Bus ridership has increased 45 percent as people are switching to bus transportation in London because their travel time has decreased due to congestion pricing. Bike use had increased by 43 percent by 2007. And London’s emission-based toll incentives provide additional environmental benefits.
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